The name of the smart card comes from the English "Smart Card", also known as the IC smart card (Integrated Circuit Card IC card). It will have an integrated circuit chip data storage, data processing, security and other functions of the embedded on a plastic substrate, packaged in the form of cards, which is similar to the shape of magnetic card and cover. Is recognized as the world's smallest personal computer.
The basic components of a smart card:
1, controller chip; 2, packaging (plastic module); 3, software; 4, IC smart card chip;
IC smart card concept was proposed in early 1970s. Before the launch of IC smart card, the card has been widely used in the world, but because the card is relatively simple. Criminals can read data from the magnetic stripe and copied to the fake card. In order to avoid huge losses, people began to seek a new method, so the IC smart card came into being. French Boolean (BULL) and Motorola semiconductor company designed the first IC smart card, when using the IC smart card to replace the magnetic stripe card, card error rate dropped to 1/10. This technology is widely used in finance, transportation, medical, identity and other industries. It combines microelectronics and computer technology to improve the modernization of people's life and work.
From the card to a smooth transition to the IC smart card, stable also for compatibility, IC smart card card still retains the original function, that is to say in IC smart card is still a magnetic stripe. Therefore, at the same time as the IC smart card card use. But judging from the appearance of IC smart card, eight contacts on the left side of the square in front of it, the following is a convex type character, have a magnetic stripe on the back. Front can also print a variety of patterns, and even portraits. Card size, position of contact and use, the position and the magnetic stripe data format has the corresponding international standard shall be clearly defined. IC smart card is also the only issuer and cardholder identification mark, so sometimes IC smart card is also used as an identification card.
From the beginning of 1987, the international organization for standardization has formulated and promulgated a series of international standards for IC smart cards, thus creating the conditions for the popularization and promotion of IC smart card. IC smart card is not only large storage capacity and safe and reliable, its storage space is divided into readable and writable, read-only, write only and other areas to store different types of data. Some can set up multi-level password for access control. For its CPU smart card IC. Because of its own processing capacity, it can use more security measures, such as data encryption, digital signature, etc.. So that the security performance to a higher level. Due to the above reasons. IC smart card is widely used as the identity certificate of the user, such as the network's network card, credit card, confidential Department ID etc..
Professional knowledge and precautions of smart card
A, IC smart card classification
1, according to the IC smart card embedded in the integrated circuit is different, can be divided into the following three types of IC smart card:
(1) memory card. IC card for EEPROM;
(2) logic encryption card. The integrated circuit in the card has encryption logic and ZEPROM;
(3) CPU card. In integrated circuit card includes a central processor CPU, EEPROM, RAM and ram curing in read-only memory in the ROM chip operating system COS (Chip Operating System), strictly speaking, only the CPU card is the real smart card.
2, according to the different application fields of 1C card. IC smart card can be divided into financial and non financial card card two. Financial cards and credit cards and cash cards.
Credit cards are issued and managed by banks. Cardholders use it as a payment tool for consumption. You can use the pre-set overdraft limit funds.
Cash card can be used as electronic passbook and electronic wallet, not allowed to overdraw.
Non financial cards often appear in a variety of transaction management, security management, such as identification, attendance, etc..
3, according to the form of IC smart card and external data transfer, there are two types of contact IC smart card and contactless IC smart card. At present, the use of a wide range of contact IC smart card, in this card, IC smart card chip has eight contacts with the outside world. The integrated circuit of the contactless IC smart card does not outwardly pull out the contacts, so it includes the circuit of the three types of IC smart cards. RF transceiver circuit and related circuit. Non contact IC smart cards are usually commercial cards. For example, when the car through the toll port, the use of such cards for charging, public transport system can also be used to collect traffic from different distances.
Two, IC smart card interface equipment
IC smart card with the work of the interface device IFD (Inter Face Device), also known as reading and writing equipment. More complex IFD by the microprocessor, keyboard, monitor, I/O interface, the device through the IC smart card on the eight contacts to provide power to the IC smart card, 1C card exchange information with each other. IFD can also be simple to only one interface circuit, IC smart cartoon circuit connected to the computer. The information stored on the IC card is limited, so most of the information needs to be stored in an interface device or computer.
Three, IC smart card security issues
Smart card in the use of unsafe factors are mainly the following:
1, the flow of information between the smart card and the interface device may be intercepted analysis, which is copied or inserted false information.
2, forged smart card simulation of the legal intelligence card and interface equipment between the information, so that the interface device can not determine whether it is legitimate or counterfeit smart card.
3, the replacement of smart cards in business transactions. For example, in the licensing process is the use of a legitimate smart card, and before the transaction data to replace the replacement of another smart card, thus the transaction data written in the replacement card.
4, modify the credit card to control the balance of the date of the update, the use of stolen cards to take the maximum amount authorized, so that the state or personal losses.
5, due to the IC smart card device management is not standardized. The interface device may be disassembled or modified privately, thereby causing the cheating of the store employees.
Due to the above unsafe factors, we should take some protective measures when applying IC smart card:
1, to strengthen the IC Smart Card Cardholder, IC smart card and IC smart card interface equipment mutual inspection;
2, in the IC smart card and IC smart card interface device to set the security zone.
The security zone contains either a logical circuit or an external unreadable storage area, and any harmful non canonical operation will automatically disable further operation of the IC smart card;
3, strict management of the IC smart card operators;
4, make full use of IC smart card keys and authentication system, to take a variety of forms of security and confidentiality;
5, IC smart card transmission of information encryption, to prevent theft, change, so as not to cause confusion;
6, the information stored in the IC smart card encryption, so that only those who master the key to read the information.